What You Need to Know
- You need to know the basic functions of the human immune system.
- You need to understand specific and non-specific immune responses.
- You need to know how the human immune system responds to vaccines and/or antibiotics.
- You need to know how genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents affect both individual and public health.
The p53 gene codes for the p53 protein that locates DNA errors for cellular repair. The diagram below shows the relationship among possible environmental influences, the p53 gene, and cancer.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationships among possible environmental influences, the p53 gene, and cancer?
A. Environmental influences can lead to mutations in the p53 gene, which can cause certain cancers.
B. Increased levels of p53 protein, rather than environmental influences, can cause certain cancers.
C. Mutations in the p53 gene increase environmental influences that can cause certain cancers.
D. Genes such as p53 are less casual than environmental influences in stimulating certain cancers.
After an initial infection, B-cells recognize the measles virus. How is this helpful in human immune response?
A. The B-cells use this recognition to defend the body against other pathogens, such as bacteria.
B. The B-cells more quickly recognize and respond to any other virus that invades the body.
C. The B-cells produce antibodies more quickly if the measles virus is encountered again.
D. The B-cells transfer this recognition to T-cells, which will then devour the viruses.
What is the body's first line of defense against infection by foreign organisms?
B. lymph nodes
C. white blood cells
D. the skin
What is immunity?
A. The body's ability to produce cells that inactivate foreign cells or substances.
B. The body's ability to regulate homeostasis through feedback loops.
C. The body's ability to produce the "fight or flight" response.
D. The body's ability to use the endocrine system to fight disease.
What is the term for a strong response to a harmless antigen in the environment?
A. cell-mediated immunity
B. an allergy
C. inflammatory response
D. an autoimmune disease
White blood cells are an important part of the human immune response. Two types of white blood cells, neutrophils and macrophages, act as phagocytes. Phagocytes perform which of the following functions in the human body?
A. They produce antibodies.
B. They bind to antigens and develop into plasma cells.
C. They form a barrier against pathogens.
D. They engulf and destroy bacteria.
Although vaccines cannot be used to treat a person who is sick, they can help to prevent infections. Vaccinations tell the body to create "memory cells", which will function later to create antibodies against certain pathogens. When a person is vaccinated, what are they injected with?
A. antibodies to a disease bacterium
B. live, inactive viruses
C. weakened viruses or antigens from the virus
D. blood from a person who has had the disease
An activity that occurs in the human body is shown below.
This activity helps to do which of the following?
A. provide protection against pathogens
B. produce antibiotics to control disease
C. eliminate harmful gene alterations
D. regulate production of ATP by the cell
Which of the following describes a way that a person's health can be affected by heredity?
A. A person with a family history of obesity is more likely to catch a common cold.
B. A person with a family history of high blood pressure is more likely to have heart disease.
C. A person with a family history of obesity is less likely to enroll in a weight loss plan.
D. A person with a family history of cancer is less likely to be screened for cancer.
Many species of bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics because antibiotics have been so widely used. Now, bacteria that used to be killed by antibiotics are more difficult to treat. What is the best way to proceed in dealing with this public health problem?
A. Antibiotics should no longer be used.
B. Antibiotics should be made available to anyone without a prescription.
C. Antibiotics should only be prescribed to people with bacterial infections.
D. Anti-viral medications should now be used instead of antibiotics.
How do human diseases caused by bacteria and diseases caused by viruses react to antibiotics?
A. Neither responds to antibiotics.
B. Both respond to antibiotics.
C. Viral diseases respond to antibiotics; bacterial diseases do not.
D. Bacterial diseases respond to antibiotics; viral diseases do not.