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SC.912.L.16.17 Mitosis and Meiosis

What You Need To Know...

  • You need to know the differences and similarities in the processes of mitosis and meiosis and relate these to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction. 
  • You need to know how mitosis and meiosis lead to genetic variation.
  • You need to know the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially resulting in cancer.
  • You need to know the cell cycle, including the process of mitosis and be able to explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during sexual reproduction.

Example One

Mitosis and meiosis are processes involved in cellular reproduction. Which of the following describes and event that results from mitosis but NOT meiosis?

A. two stages of cell division

B. replication of cellular genetic material

C. daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell

D. four daughter cells that are produced from each parent cell

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Example Two

How are sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction different from each other?

A. sexual reproduction requires two parents and asexual reproduction requires only one parent

B. asexual reproduction requires two parents and sexual reproduction requires only one parent

C. mutation rates are lower in sexual reproduction than in asexual reproduction

D. asexual reproduction occurs only in multicellular organisms

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Example Three

Which type of reproduction leads to increased genetic variation on a population?

A. Parthenogenesis

B. asexual reproduction

C. Sexual reproduction

D. Vegetative reproduction

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Example Four

Which of the following phrases best describes cancer?

A. absence of cyclins in the DNA

B. miltiple gene mutations on a chromosome of DNA

C. uncontrolled cell growth caused by mutations in genes that control the cell cycle

D. presence of genetic defects caused by hereditary disorders

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Example Five

Which of the following phases of mitosis is represented by the diagram below?

metaphase.gif

A. prophase

B. metaphase

C. anaphase

D. telophase

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Example Six

A scientist wants to change the DNA of a sexually reproducing organism and have the new DNA present in every cell of the organism. In order to do this after fertilization, she would change the DNA in which of the following? 

A. zygote

B. placenta

C. testes of the father

D. ovaries of the mother

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Example Seven

Which row in the chart below indicates the correct process for each event indicated? 

mitosis table.jpg

A. row 1

B. row 2

C. row 3

D. row 4

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Example Eight

The diagram below shows a cellular process that occurs in organisms. 

MEIOSIS.jpg

What is the name of this process? 

A. meiosis

B. mitosis

C. endocytosis

D. phagocytosis

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Example Nine

The diagram below shows homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.

crossing over.jpg

Which of the following correctly describes the process being illustrated? 

A. mutation in which the DNA content of the gene is altered

B. segregation of sister chromatids

C. condensation and segregation of alleles

D. crossing-over in which alleles are exchanged

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Example Ten

Which of the following best describes meiosis? 

A. It is carried out in all tissues that require cell replacement.

B. It occurs only in cells in the reproductive structures of organisms. 

C. It happens in all tissues except the brain and spinal cord.

D. It is the first stage of mitosis. 

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Example Eleven

The diagram below shows two strawberry plants.

strawberries.jpg

Plant 2 is produced asexually from Plant 1. If the leaf cells of Plant 1 have 56 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be found in the leaf cells of Plant 2?

A. 14

B. 28

C. 56

D. 112

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Mitosis, Meiosis, and Sexual Reproduction

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Phases of Mitosis

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Phases of Meiosis

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Cancer

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Mitosis vs. Meiosis

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In Your Book

General Biology - Sections 5.1 and 5.2, pgs. 134-143, and Sections 6.1 and 6.2, pgs. 168-176

Honors Biology - Sections 10.1 and 10.2, pgs. 234-244, and Section 11.4 pgs. 275-285