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SS.912.A.2 Civil War and Reconstruction

Research and Inquiry Skills

late nineteenth and early twentieth century

global military, political, and economic challenges

the united states and the defense of the international peace

What you need to know...

  • You will need to know the causes and consequences of the Civil War.
  • You will need to know the economic, political, and social causes of the Civil War.
  • You will need to know the varying points of view regarding the main causes of the Civil War.
  • You will need to know the constitutional issues relevant to the Civil War and Reconstruction.
  • You will need to know the economic, political, and social consequences of Reconstruction.
  • You will need to know the influence of significant people or groups on Reconstruction.
  • You will need to know the issues that divided Republicans during the early Reconstruction era.

Terms to know include, but are not limited to: African-American migration, Anaconda Plan, Black Codes, carpetbaggers, Compromise of 1850, Dawes Act, debt peonage, Dred Scott decision, Emancipation Proclamation, 15th Amendment, 14th Amendment, Freeport Doctrine, Gettysburg, Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln, Jim Crow Laws, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Ku Klux Klan, Ostend Manifesto, Radical Republicans, reservation system, sharecropping, states' rights, 13th Amendment, Vicksburg, westward expansion.

Example 1

Use the following quote and your knowledge of US History to answer the following question.

"This country will be drenched in blood. The people of the North are not going to let the country be destroyed without a mighty effort to save it. Besides, where are your men and appliances of war to contend against them? You are rushing into war with one of the most powerful, ingeniously mechanical and determined people on earth - right at your doors. Only in spirit and determination are you prepared for war. In all else you are totally unprepared."

The quote above was spoken by William T. Sherman upon hearing the news that the southern states had begun to secede. Which of the following is Sherman’s projection as the outcome and/or consequence of southern secession?

A. There will be a war in which the South will win due to their militaristic nature and abundance of weapons.

B. There will be a war in which the South will win due to their governmental dominance and obvious determination.

C. There will be a war in which the North will win due to their technological advancements and lack of southern military.

D. There will be a war in which the North will win due to their stability though political, social, and economic conditions.

Click for Answer

Example 2

Which of the following correctly describes the political cartoon below?


A. Charles Schurz, who was a Northern Republican, is shown in a positive light as he heads to the South in enact Reconstruction policies.

B. The southern citizens in the background are cheering his arrival due to the cooperation taking place between northern and southern politicians.  

C. The southern citizens in the background are actively attempting to prevent the arrival of the carpetbaggers they feared and hated with a passion.

D. Charles Schurz is shown in a negative light since he is depicted as a grim and intense intruder with clenched fists.

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Example 3

“We have been taught to hunt and live on the game. You tell us that we must learn to farm, live in one house, and take on your ways. Suppose the people living beyond the great sea should come and tell you that you must stop farming, and kill your cattle and take your houses and lands, what would you do? Would you not fight them?”

--Gall, a Hunkpapa Sioux Indian, quoted in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee

What was Gall’s view of future relations between the Plains Indians and the settlers?

A.            Peaceful coexistence

B.            Further conflict

C.            Mutual respect

D.            Equality

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Example 4

The table below provides information about the African-American population in several cities after the Civil War.


Which condition in society was primarily responsible for the change in urban population?
A. absence of agricultural employment in Southern communities
B. lack of political representation in Southern communities
C. availability of job opportunities in Northern cities
D. prevalence of racial equality in Northern cities

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Example 5

The most direct effect of poll taxes and literacy tests on African Americans was to:
a.  prevent them from voting
b.  limit their access to public facilities
c.  block their educational opportunities
d.  deny them economic advancements

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Example 6

In the 1850s, the phrase “Bleeding Kansas” was used to describe clashes between
a. proslavery and antislavery groups
b. Spanish landowners and new American settler
c. Chinese and Irish railroad workers
d. Native American Indians and white settlers

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Example 7

The Homestead Act, the mass killing of buffalo, and the completion of the transcontinental railroad are most closely associated with the
a. rise of organized labor
b. building of the Erie Canal
c. northern migration of African Americans
d. decline of the Plains Indians

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Example 8

Many Southern States tried to limit the effects of Radical Reconstruction by
a. adopting federal laws mandating segregation
b. enacting Jim Crow laws
c. abolishing the Southern sharecropping system
d. securing passage of new amendments to the United States Constitution

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Example 9

On March 3, 1845, Florida joined the Union as a slave state, while Iowa became a free state. This entrance into the Union as a pair was required under what document?

            A. Missouri Compromise

            B. Compromise of 1850

            C. Adams-Onis Treaty

            D. Fillmore Agreement

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Example 10

The following excerpt is from the Thirteenth Amendment which was passed by the U.S. Congress on December 6, 1865. After reading it, chose which statement best summarizes the Amendment.

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."


A. The Thirteenth Amendment freed all slaves and therefore allowed them the same rights as all other citizens of the United States.

B. The Thirteenth Amendment freed all slaves which now allowed therefore allowed any type of discrimination.

C. The Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery but did not specify an African-American’s political rights.

D. The Thirteenth Amendment brought about an end to the Civil War since it outlawed slavery.

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Example 11

Which of the following statements is true concerning the map pictured below?


A. The Union thought that by blockading the southern ports they could easily win the war.

B. The Union wanted to shut the south off from all possible help in an attempt to squeeze the Confederacy into submission.

C. The snake’s head begins in the Union’s capital and tail ends in the Confederate capital to mark the journey the soldiers would face during the war.

D. The Union knew that the Confederacy had the industrial advantage so they were attempting to cut off any exportation of goods.

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FLDOE Tutorial

Civil War


Deconstructing Reconstruction

courtesy of FL Department of Education



In Your Book

textbook cover

Chapter 4

Pages 154 - 190

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